Article Style Guide

Pacific Affairs uses The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition. Please refer to it for all formatting questions that are not covered below.

Pacific Affairs Top Ten Style Guide Tips

  1. Please submit your paper with endnotes (the Notation (N) format in Chicago Manual of Style). Do not use in-text citations.
  2. When possible always cite hard copy sources, avoid internet sources. If an internet source must be used the website must still be available at time of publication. If the article was obtained from an online archive for a fee, include only the main entrance of the source (i.e., the “home page”).
  3. Avoid overuse of acronyms.
  4. Subsequent citation: We do not use “ibid.” in endnotes: multiple citation of the same source must provide the author’s last name, an abbreviated title, and the page reference.
  5. When providing dates in endnotes use Day/Month/Year. Within the text of the article Month/Day/Year is acceptable if spelled out. (On May 1, 1928 Pacific Affairs published its first article.)
  6. Use double quotation marks (“”) only when citing material; try not to use them for emphasis or to alert the reader that you are questioning the term.
  7. Pacific Affairs uses the serial comma. (The staff at Pacific Affairs are talented, efficient, and courteous.)
  8. Numbers between one and one hundred are spelled out (some exceptions apply, see Section V below)
  9. Italicize all foreign terms; if a term is used repeatedly throughout then it may be typed in roman after the first instance.
  10. See Pacific Affairs Preferred Usage Guide for preferred spelling of commonly used terms.

 Jump To:

I. Citations

Books
Chapter in Books
Journal Articles
Magazine Articles
Newspaper Articles
Interviews
Field Notes
Annual Reports – see CMS 14.249
Legal and Public Documents
Graduate Theses
Conference Papers
Court Reports – see CMS 14.288
Government Publications
Website Sources

II. Language

Spelling and Preferred Usage
Abbreviations

III. Punctuation

Periods and Quotation Marks
Comma
Dashes – see CMS 2.12 & 2.13
Ellipses
Colons – see CMS 6.59

IV. Hyphenation

Prefixes – see CMS 7.77
Suffixes – see CMS 7.77 & 5.228

V. Numbers

VI. Capitalization

Geographical Areas

Government Offices, Organizations, Judicial Bodies, Wars, Political Parties

Official documents and legal cases

Text Elements

VII. Dates

VIII. Romanization / Foreign Language Fonts

I.  Citations

Pacific Affairs uses endnotes for citation, following The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition (CMS). We do not include bibliographies. We ask our authors to limit themselves to a reasonable number of endnotes (60–80), and to keep endnoted material as concise as possible. When consulting the CMS look for the examples that begin with a number and a period; these are examples of Notation (endnote) format.

Use superscript Arabic numbers for endnotes, with the end quote mark following the period and the superscript number after the end quote.

The Chicago Manual of Style is an excellent resource.”1

According to CMS author names appear [first name] [last name] when citing, however, in the case of some Asian names the convention is to write [last name] [first name] and if this is how the name appears on the published item then follow this convention

Books

 One author

Kenneth Roberts, Deepening Democracy? The Modern Left and Social Movements in Chile and Peru (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1998), 3.

University of Chicago Press, The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010).

  • See CMS 14.18 for further details.

Foreign-language title

Rao Shuguang, Zhongguo dianying shichang fazhanshi [Development history of the Chinese film market] (Beijing: Zhongguo dianying chubanshe, 2009).

Takahashi Hiroshi, Innovation to seijigaku–Jōhō tūshin kakumei <Nihon no okure> no seijikatei [Innovation and political science–the political processes of ICT Revolution “Japan’s delay”] (Tokyo: Keisō Shobō, 2009), 251–254.

Subsequent citation:

Roberts, Deepening Democracy, 16–19.

Rao, Zhongguo dianying, 148.

Takahashi, Innovation to sekjigaku, 299.

Two or three authors

Liam P. Unwin and Joseph Galloway, Peace in Ireland (Boston, MA: Stronghope Press, 1990), 14–22.

Firman Lubis, Anke Niehof, and Puji Astuti, The traditional midwife in kecamatan Serpong: The dukun bayi survey. Serpong Paper 15 (Leiden: Instituut voor Culturele Antropologie, Rijksuniversiteit Leiden, 1973).

Subsequent citation:

Lubis, Niehof, Astuti, Traditional Midwife, 43.

Four or more authors

Jeri A. Sechzer et al., Women and Mental Health (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996), 243.

Subsequent citation:

Sechzer et al., Women and Mental Health, 276.

  • Author names should appear as they were published, in the case of some Asian authors this will mean that last name will be first.

Eric Thompson and Zhang Juan, “Navigating transnationalism: immigration and reconfigured ethnicity,” in Impressions of the Goh Chok Tong Years in Singapore, eds. Bridget Welsh et al. (Singapore: Institute of Policy Studies, 2009), 305–316.

Edited book

  • It is strongly encouraged that citations from edited volumes indicate the relevant specific chapter. Only cite the entire edited book if the point being supported is about the entire collection of chapters.

Anthony B. Tortelli, ed., Sociology Approaching the Twenty-first Century (Los Angeles, CA: Peter and Sons, 1991).

Subsequent citation:

Tortelli, Sociology Approaching, 15.

Chapter in edited book

Herbert Kitschelt, “Partisan Competition and Welfare State Retrenchment,” in The New Politics of the Welfare State, ed. Paul Pierson (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001), 128.

Eric Thompson and Zhang Juan, “Navigating transnationalism: immigration and reconfigured ethnicity,” in Impressions of the Goh Chok Tong Years in Singapore, eds. Bridget Welsh et al. (Singapore: Institute of Policy Studies, 2009), 305–316.

Foreign-language title

Ines Kohl, “Flucht und Migration durch die Sahara: Tareg, Akteure eines Transnationalen Netzwerks,”[Flight and migration across the Sahara: Tuareg, agents of transnational networks] in Schleppen, Schleusen, Helfen: Flucht Zwischen Rettung und Ausbeutung [Human trafficking or assisted escape?], eds. Gabriele Anderl and Simon Usaty (Wien: Mandelbaum Verlag, 2016), 459.

Okamoto Masataka, “Ijūsha no kenri wo mamoru nettowāku undō no kiseki to kaidai” [Track and challenge of a network-movement protecting the rights of immigrants], in Imin wo meguru jichitai no seisaku to shakai undō [Local government politics and social movements directed at immigrants], ed. Hiroshi Komai (Tokyo: Akashi Shoten, 2004), 203.

Subsequent citation:

Kitschelt, “Partisan Competition,” 133.

Thompson and Zhang, “Navigating transnationalism,” 314.

Kohl, “Flucht und Migration,” 459.

Okamoto, “Ijūsha no kenri,” 212.

Journal Articles

Therese MacDermott and Brian Opeskin, “Regulating Pacific Seasonal Labour in Australia,” Pacific Affairs 83, no. 2 (2010): 283–305.

William J. Novak, “The Myth of the ‘Weak’ American State,” American Historical Review 113, no. 3 (June 2008): 758, https://doi.org/10.1086/ahr.113.3.752.

Michael D. Barr, “Marxists in Singapore? Lee Kuan Yew’s Campaign against Catholic Social Justice Activists in the 1980s,” Critical Asian Studies 42, no. 3 (September 2010), https://doi.org/10.1080/14672715.2010.507389.

Foreign-language title

Shen Yu-chung, “Deng Xiaoping yu Zhongguo zhengzhi tizhi gaige” [Deng Xiaoping and China’s political reform], Zhanwang yu tansuo 2, no. 5 (2004): 82.

Chŏng Ŭn-ch’an, “Pukhan ŭi hwan’gyŏng poho hyŏnhwang kwa kaesŏn pangan” [The Status of environmental protection in North Korea and improvement plans], Nambuk munhwa yesul yǒn’gu 24, no. 14 (2014): 297.

Subsequent citation:

MacDermott and Opeskin, “Regulating Pacific,” 292.

Novak, “Myth,” 750

Shen, “Deng Xiaoping,” 82.

Chŏng, “Pukhan ŭi hwan’gyŏng,” 299.

Magazine Articles

Marcia Berss, “Protein Man,” Forbes, 24 October 1994, 64–66.

Foreign-language title

Hatijah Aam, “Global Ikhwan di tengah-tengah Bangsa Arab” [Global Ikhwan in the midst of the Arab nation], Buletin Rakyat, 15 May 2011.

Subsequent citation:

Berss, “Protein Man,” 65.

Aam, “Global Ikhwan.”

Newspaper Articles

 Mike Royko, “Next Time, Dan, Take Aim at Arnold,” Chicago Tribune, 23 September 1992.

“North Korea’s Nuclear Path under Kim Jong-il,” New York Times, 19 December 2011.

Associated Press, “Afraid of Laundry? You Will Be after Reading This,” USA Today, 17 July 2008, http://www.usatoday.com/news/topstories/2008-07-17-861610133_x.htm.

 Foreign-language title

“Penduduk rayu penempatan Asa’ari dikaji semula” [Residents plead for a reassessment of Asa’ari’s settlement], Berita Harian, 5 September 2002.

“Gaikokujin rōdōsha no jinken ni hōseibi wo mitome teigen: Ijūren” [Demanding the legal implementation of human rights of foreign workers: SMJ], Asahi Shinbun, 2 November 2002.

Subsequent citation:

Royko, “Next Time, Dan.”

“North Korea’s Nuclear Path,” New York Times.

Associated Press, “Afraid of Laundry?”

“Penduduk rayu penempatan,” Berita Harian.

“Gaikokujin rōdōsha,” Asahi Shinbun.

  • See CMS 14.203 for further details.

Interviews

Tanaka Kakuei, interview by author, tape recording, Tokyo, 26 July 1973.

Subsequent citation:

Tanaka Kakuei, interview, 26 July 1973.

  • An interview with a person who prefers to remain anonymous or whose name the author does not wish to reveal may be cited in whatever form is appropriate in context. The absence of a name should be explained in the first instance of use. (“All interviews were conducted in confidentiality, and the names of interviewees are withheld by mutual agreement”).

Interview with health care worker, 23 March 2010.

  • See CMS 14.218 for further details.

Field Notes

  • Field notes should include at a minimum the author’s name, a description (“field notes” suffices but more detail is also acceptable), and a date. Beyond this, the primary rule of thumb is consistency.

Owen Lattimore, field notes, 14 August 1932.

Subsequent citation:

Lattimore, field notes, 14 August 1932.

Legal and Public Documents

United Nations Security Council (UNSC), Resolution 7, “The Spanish Question,” 26 June 1946, http://www.un.org/documents/sc/res/1946/scres46.htm.

United Nations General Assembly (UNGA), Resolution 52/239, “Financing and liquidation of the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia,” 17 July 1998, http://www.un.org/en/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/RES/52/239.

Foreign-language title

Kankyōshō [Ministry of the Environment], “Senryakuteki Kankyō Eikyō Hyōka ni tsuite” [Strategic environmental assessment]. Accessed 3 December 2009. http://www.env.go.jp/council/02policy/y0210-04/mat06.pdf.

Subsequent citation:

UNSC, “The Spanish Question.”

UNGA, “UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia,” 4–5.

Kankyōshō, “Senryakuteki Kankyō,” 2.

  • See CMS 14.281, specifically 14.317 for international bodies, for further details.

Graduate Theses

Dorothy Ross, “The Irish-Catholic Immigrant, 1880–1900: A Study in Social Mobility” (master’s thesis, Columbia University, 2003), 142–155.

Yutaka Sasaki, “The Struggle for Scholarly Objectivity: Unofficial Diplomacy and the Institute of Pacific Relations from the Sino-Japanese War to the McCarthy Era” (PhD dissertation, Rutgers University, 2005), 221.

Conference Papers

Ima Fuller Angst, “With Peers Like These Who Needs Enemies?” (paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Society of Revisers and Resubmitters, Milwaukee, WI, April 17–19, 1978).

  • A paper included in the published proceedings of a meeting may be treated like a chapter in a book. If published in a journal, treat it like an article.

Court Reports

  • See CMS 14.281.

Government Publications

National Coordinating Committee for Environment (NCCE), DPRK’s First National Communication under the Framework Convention on Climate Change (Pyongyang: Ministry of Land and Environment Protection, 2000), 11. Accessed 12 November 2014. http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/natc/prknc1.pdf.

Foreign-language title

Daiyonji shutsunyūkoku kanri seisaku kondankai (SKSK), Jinkō genshō jidai ni okeru shutsunyūkoku kanri gyōsei no tōmen no kadai – Enkatsukan to genkakuka no ryōritsu ni mukete [The urgent challenges for immigration control administration in times of a shrinking population–on the compatibility of smoothening and reinforcing] (Tokyo: Ministry of Justice, 2004), 78.

  • See CMS 14.292 for further details.
Subsequent citations:

NCCE, DPRK’s First National Communication, 81–82.

SKSK, Jinkō genshō jidai, 122.

Website Sources

  •  Wikipedia is not an acceptable source for empirical information.
  • PA encourages authors to create “tiny URLs” for long URLs. This not only makes for neater footnotes, but could make the difference between live and dead links in your paper once it is published online (a “wrap around” URL will often cause it not to work). There are a number of sites that will do this for free, three of the notable being TinyURL (https://tinyURL.com/), Google URL shortener (https://goo.gl/), and bitly (https://bitly.com/).

Web citations must include as much of the following as can be determined:

  • name of the host organization
  • author of the page’s content
  • title (or a brief description) of the page
  • date of publication
  • URL (or tiny URL)
  • NOTE: access date need only be included if the source has no publication date or there is reason to believe the source may move or its contents change:

Web Citation by Type:

Webpage (general)

  • For the citation of websites and their content that do not fall into any of the other categories below use the following format:

 Nautilus Institute for Security and Sustainability, “Dangerous Waters: Examining the South China Sea Conflict (2014) [workshop summary],” accessed 15 May 2016, http://nautilus.org/projects/by-name/dangerous-waters-examining-the-south-china-sea-conflict/.

Subsequent citation:

Nautilus Institute, “Dangerous Waters.”

Blogs

  • Generally, citation of blogs as sources is discouraged in an academic article, but they are at times unavoidable depending on the subject of the article and nature of the blog.

Benoit Hardy-Chartrand, “Has China altered its course on regional policy?” Asia-Pacific Security (blog), 3 February 2015, http://tinyurl.com/z43c9z3.

Foreign-language title

Kaj Falkman, “Rencontre avec une grande résistante vietnamienne” [Meeting with a great figure of the Vietnamese resistance], Le Monde diplomatique (blog), 22 January 2015, http://goo.gl/YeMvRn.

Subsequent citations:

Hardy-Chartrand, “Has China altered its course?”

Falkman, “Recontre.”

Journal articles (printed with online availability & DOI)

  • If there is a print version then that should be cited (see Journal Articles); however, if they also have a digital object identifier (doi), that may be substituted for page range:

Terence Wesley-Smith, “China’s Rise in Oceania: Issues and Perspectives,” Pacific Affairs 86, no. 2 (2013), https://doi.org/10.5509/2013862351.

Foreign-language title

Takemoto Kentaro, Kawahigashi Masami, and Kubo Nobuyuki, “Daigaku ni okeru uebu mēru to tāminarusābisu no kenkyū” [A study of webmail and terminal service for the university], Hyōjunka kenkyū 7, no. 1 (2009), https://doi.org/10.11467/isss2003.7.1_11

Subsequent citations:

Wesley-Smith, “China’s Rise,” 361.

Takemoto et al., “Daigaku no okeru,” 15.

Journal articles (online ONLY, i.e. electronic journals with no print version)

  • Citation should mirror that for a print journal with the exception of pagination, which is substituted with a URL:

Remco Breuker, “Korea’s Forgotten War: Appropriating and Subverting the Vietnam War in Korean Popular Imaginings,” Korean Histories 1, no. 1 (2009), http://goo.gl/ZmgBdb.

Bu Liping, “Anti-malaria Campaigns and the Socialist Reconstruction of China, 1950–80,” East Asian History 39 (2014), http://eastasianhistory.net/39/bu.

Subsequent citations:

Breuker, “Korea’s Forgotten War,” 2.

Bu, “Anti-malaria campaigns.”

Magazines and newspapers

  • As with journals, if a print version is available, it is preferable to cite that (see Magazine Articles and Newspaper Articles). However, understandably some obscure or geographically remote publications may only reasonably be accessed online. Online newspapers and magazines follow the same format as for print, only with the URL substituting for page citation:

Myat Nyein Aye and Ye Mon, “Could water taxis solve Yangon’s traffic?” Myanmar Times, 27 May 2016, accessed 1 June 2016, http://goo.gl/MI5gkp.

 Foreign-language title

Yan Jiangning, “Zhong ye haiwai zhao kuang lu” [MCC seeks mineral wealth overseas], Caixin, 6 September 2010, accessed 30 March 2014, http://magazine.caixin.com/2010-09-04/100177070.html.

Subsequent citations:

Aye and Mon, “Could water taxis solve Yangon’s traffic?”

Yan, “Zhong ye haiwai.”

Gray Literature

  • Referring to unpublished papers/white papers/papers published online only.

Felix Heiduk, “Indonesia in ASEAN” (SWP Research Paper, Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik, April 2016), accessed 15 June 2016, http://goo.gl/BDtfYc.

Foreign-language title

Kang Kwang-gyu and Yi U-p’yŏng, “Pukhan t’anso sijang chamjaeryŏk ch’ujŏng yŏn’gu: enŏji pumunŭl chungsimŭro” [Estimation of carbon market potential in North Korea: focusing on the energy sector] (Pyongyang: Korean Environment Institute, 2010), accessed 10 May 2016, http://goo.gl/RYIgAx.

Subsequent citations:

Heiduk, “Indonesia in ASEAN,” 2.

Kang & Yi, “Pukhan t’anso sijang.”

Public Documents online

  • The document’s access date should only be included if the information is time sensitive and likely to change (e.g., for a table whose data is regularly updated):

North Korea International Documentation Project (NKIDP), Wilson Center, “Appointment of John W. Staggers as General Counsel by Syngman Rhee, 18 April 1922,” http://digitalarchive.wilsoncenter.org/document/122733.

Philippines Department of Trade & Industry (PDTI), “Government Trade Watch List 2016,” accessed 05 June 2016, http://www.dti.gov.ph/watchlist2016.

Subsequent citations:

NKIDP, “Appointment of John W. Staggers.”

PDTI, “Trade Watch List.”

Audio-visual materials online

Weed, At the Foot of the Flatiron (American Mutoscope and Biograph Co., 1903), 35 mm film, from the Library of Congress, The Life of a City: Early Films of New York, 1898–1906, MPEG video, 2:19, accessed 3 November 2010, http://lcweb2.loc.gov/ammem/papr/nychome.html.

Michael Sullivan, “Protests, suspicion in Vietnam over government’s response to fish kill,” Morning Edition, National Public Radio (audio broadcast), 3:55, 30 May 2016, accessed 31 May 2016, http://goo.gl/s9ivQP.

Subsequent citations:

Weed, At the Foot of the Flatiron.

Sullivan, “Protests, suspicion in Vietnam.”

II. Language

Spelling and Preferred Usage

Pacific Affairs uses Canadian spelling and follows The Canadian Oxford Dictionary and The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition.

Please see our Preferred Usage Guide for Spelling and Capitalization for specific examples.

  • Canadian usage adopts the “-ize” ending, rather than “-ise” (capitalize, economize, organize).
  • Pacific Affairs prefers the following usage:
    • “-re” rather than “-er” (theatre, kilometre, centre)
    • “-our” rather than “-or” (colour, labour, neighbourhood)
  • Verbs with single “l”/double “l” and their derivatives: use the single “l” (fulfil and fulfilment or enrol and enrolment).
  • Double “l”/single “l” in the past tense of verbs: use the double “ll” (travelled, modelled and labelled rather than traveled, modeled and labeled).
  • For hyphenation, please see below.
  • For numbers, please see below.

Abbreviations

  • Spell out acronyms and initialisms on first reference, thereafter, use large caps, and no periods: Chinese Communist Party (CCP).
  • Avoid excessive use of initialisms, see CMS 10.3 for further details.
  • Do not use periods in geographical initialisms (USA, US, UK, DMZ).
  • Use i.e. and e.g. punctuated with periods and followed by a comma (the style of that dress, i.e., bias cut).
  • For the use of articles (the, an) before an initialism see CMS 7.44 and 10.9.

III. Punctuation

Periods and Quotation Marks

  • Periods and commas sit inside quotation marks; colons and semicolons sit outside. Question and exclamation marks should sit outside unless they are part of the quotation.

Many people feel that these days, there is an overemphasis on “political correctness.”

He asked, “Why are you so upset?”

  • Punctuation should be followed by a single space.

Case studies are a widely used method of research in India. Leela Gulati has strong views on the topic.

  • Use double quotation marks for quoted material; use single quotation marks for quotations within quotations.

The report states that, “free trade will imperil formerly ‘protected markets.’”

(Note: There should be no space between ‘ and “.)

  • Per CMS, refrain from using scare quotes (single or double quotation marks) around single words “unless it is essential to the author’s argument and not confusing to readers” CMS 7.55.

Comma

  • Pacific Affairs employs the serial comma. (The staff at Pacific Affairs are talented, efficient, and courteous.)

Ellipses

  • Dots should be set tight with letter spaces preceding and following the ellipses. For ellipses that occur at the end of a sentence, the period should be set at even spacing from the first dot.

 … according to the … report.

Separating criminals from their profits eliminates their chief motive and breaks the crime cycle. … Bill C-61 will give courts …

  • See CMS 13.51 for further details.

IV.  Hyphenation

  • In keeping with contemporary spelling practices, we follow a closed (no-hyphen) style as a general rule. Pacific Affairs does not hyphenate intergovernmental, nongovernmental, multinational, subsystem, subgroup, subsample, prewar, postwar, turnout, postindustrial, semiskilled.
  • Pacific Affairs does not hyphenate policy maker, policy making, decision maker and decision making when used as nouns. It does hyphenate adjectival forms such as “policy-making [decision-making] process.”
  • When prefixes are attached to numerals, the compounds are hyphenated.

pre-1995 models, post-1945 economy

 V.  Numbers

  • Spell out whole numbers from one through one hundred, unless doing so would clutter a sentence unduly.

Twenty subscriptions to Pacific Affairs are better than two.

The winning lottery numbers were 2, 3, 13, 36, 41, and 49.

  • Use numerals to express numbers nine or under when: they refer to scores, age, percentages, and decades

7–3 victory, 6 years old, 89 percent, 1960s

  •  they are used with unit symbols

$1 million, $5 rebate, 9 cm wide, ¥500, ₩50 million, RMB500,000

  • Spell out ordinals in text; the numeral version is acceptable in tabular material and bibliographies (twenty-first, not 21st).
  • Spell out percent in text; the % symbol is acceptable in tabular material.
  • Inclusive numbers should not be contracted within text, using an en-dash with no space before or after

5–9, 65–67, 102–107, 1204–1293, the War of 1861–1865).

  • See CMS 9.1 for further details.

VI.  Capitalization

Geographical areas

  • Capitalize topographical names commonly accepted as proper names (Korean Peninsula, Taiwan Strait) and politically or culturally significant areas (Northeast Asia, the Western world, the Great Wall).
  • Do not capitalize geographical terms that are simply descriptive or climatic, such as northwestern Vietnam, southern China, etc.

 See Preferred Usage Guide for Spelling and Capitalization for a comprehensive list 

Government Offices, Organizations, Judicial Bodies, Wars, Political Parties

  • Capitalize titles and offices only when preceding a name and not modified:

President Aquino

but: Aquino, the president

or: The president spoke to the assembly…

  • Capitalize full titles of government or judicial bodies, but lowercase partial forms:

Department of Foreign Affairs; the foreign affairs department

Human Rights Watch

The Asia Society; the society

  • In most countries, Parliament, Congress, Diet, and Senate are capitalized.
  • Full titles of wars are capitalized. The words war and battle are lowercased when used alone:

Vietnam War

World War II

the Second World War

  • Political parties are capitalized; political movements are not:

the Liberal Party, the Chinese Communist Party; communism, capitalism

Comprehensive list of Pacific Affairs preferred capitalization and spelling

Official documents and legal cases

  • Full titles of acts, treaties, policies, agreements, plans, and similar documents should be capitalized and set in roman type:

China-Mexico Free Trade Agreement (but China-Mexico FTA, or the agreement)

Occupational Health Act (but the health act, the act)

Text elements

Do not capitalize text elements, either as titles or text references

appendix A, chapter 5, part 7, figure 2

  • Do not abbreviate text elements (ch. 5, f. 10); they should always be spelled out in full.

VII. Dates

  • Maintain a consistent style throughout the text. Within text dates should appear as follows:

June 3, 1993 (…on June 3, 1993, we…)

  • However use DAY MONTH YEAR in endnotes.

Marcia Berss, “Protein Man,” Forbes, 24 October 1994, 64–66.

VIII. Romanization / Foreign Language Fonts

For citations in all languages other than English, please provide the title in the original language, Romanized in accordance with one of the following systems:

  • McCune-Reischauer (Korean)
  • Hepburn (Japanese)
  • Pinyin (Chinese)

See Section I for examples

 

If the original script is used in the text of the article (i.e., to clarify a translation issue) then the following fonts must be used:

  • Korean – PC Myungjo
  • Japanese – MS Mincho
  • Chinese – P Ming LiU

For languages not listed above please select a standard, commonly available font.

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