Recent Issue – Vol 86, No 2 – June 2013

**Special Issue**

Global Perspectives on Chinese Investment

Guest Editors: Graeme Smith and Paul D’Arcy

Introduction: Global Perspectives on Chinese Investment

Graeme Smith, The University of Sydney, China Studies Centre
Paul D’Arcy, Australian National University, College of Asia and the Pacific

issue images-86_2_trupelahut

Keywords: Chinese outbound direct investment (ODI), Rio Tinto, SOEs, Chinalco, China-Australia relations, Principal-Supervisor-Agent framework

This introduction outlines some of the more influential academic studies on Chinese investment abroad, including the existing quantitative literature on Chinese outbound direct investment (ODI). It introduces a case study from Australia involving state-owned mining conglomerate Chinalco, and the fallout from its failed bid for a share in Rio Tinto. The study confounds many of stereotypes issue images-86_2_oilfactoryabout the behaviour of the Chinese central state. We go on to suggest frameworks developed in the study of China’s domestic political economy that may be useful in analyzing the behaviour of Chinese state and non-state actors abroad. Such frameworks can help in understanding how Chinese investors develop informal institutions, and make use of existing formal institutions, to “get things done” in unfamiliar investment environments. Abstract in Chinese – 摘要

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Chinese Views on China’s Role in International Development Assistance

Merriden Varrall, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam

Keywords: Chinese aid, Chinese foreign policy, development theory, nationalism, elite worldviews, Realism, Constructivism

issue images-86_2_newdevelopmentChina’s increasing role as a provider of overseas aid is the subject of considerable debate both within and outside of China. However, despite research activity examining how Chinese aid is materialised, very little is actually known about why Chinese aid projects are developed or implemented the way they are. Although recent indications suggest the Chinese government is increasingly willing to be more open about overseas aid, for example, the release of the first White Paper on Foreign Aid in 2011, external observers remain largely unaware of the values, goals and motivations behind Chinese aid projects. Alongside this lack of information, non-Chinese analyses tend to be founded on a Realist approach to understanding international relations in which a ‘rising power’ such as China automatically constitutes a threat to existing power relations. As a result, many scholars conclude that China’s aid is part of a strategic quest to further its own geopolitical ends. This paper provides insights into the contentious topic of the drivers behind Chinese overseas development assistance. It finds that Chinese elites in the international development sphere do not share the views prevalent in Western international relations discourse about the international system and China’s role within it. This article argues that exploring Chinese development actors’ and commentators’ conceptions of what development means, along with their views on China’s role and obligations within the international system, allows a better understanding of the motivations behind Chinese aid, and a re-examination of some of the misconceptions around Chinese aid as a tool of Chinese geopolitical strategy. Abstract in Chinese – 摘要

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Crude ‘Oil-Mercantilism’? Chinese Oil-Engagement in Kazakhstanissue images-86_2_mccarthy_pipeline

Joseph McCarthy, Australian National University, School of Sociolgy

Keywords: neo-mercantilism; oil investment; China; NOCs National Oil Companies (NOCs); Kazakhstan

In 1991, the state-owned China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) commenced the first Chinese National Oil Company (NOC) equity oil investment overseas when they invested in a UN-sponsored oil sands project in Canada. Since then, CNPC and the other Chinese NOCs (Sinopec & CNOOC) have steadily increased their equity oil investments in developing nations, sometimes with the assistance of various Chinese party and government organs. Viewed in the context of China’s burgeoning oil consumption and plateauing oil production, these investments have led to accusations by Western analysts and policymakers that China is engaging in “mercantilism” by “locking up” oil supplies from vulnerable developing nations to assuage their mounting energy-security woes.issue images-86_2_Ramu River Bridge

Through examining Chinese oil-engagement in Kazakhstan, this paper will analyse whether accusations of “mercantilism” can adequately capture the complexities and dynamics that drive Chinese NOC investment in developing nations. This will be achieved by first surveying contemporary debates regarding Chinese oil-engagement abroad and then linking these debates to historical and contemporary conceptualisations of mercantilism. This will allow for a new multi-faceted definition of “oil mercantilist” behaviour, which will shift the label from a statement of ethical value to a statement of empirical fact that can be tested. This definition will then be used to examine the institutional contexts in China that support and counter contemporary accusations of oil mercantilism, and then to explore Chinese oil-engagement in Kazakhstan from 1996 to the present day. This paper will contribute to emerging literature that suggests Chinese oil investment and diplomacy cannot be simply understood through mercantilist perspectives. Analyses of Chinese oil engagement need to recognise the important influence that China’s institutional reforms have had on Chinese NOCs’ increasingly commercial approach to foreign investment, in addition to the unique host-country contexts China encounters through its oil investments. Abstract in Chinese – 摘要

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Going Global Responsibly? China’s Strategies Towards “Sustainable” Overseas Investments

Christelle Maurin, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa
Pichamon Yeophantong, University of Oxford, Global Economic Governance Programme

Keywords: Chinese ODI, sustainable investment, corporate social responsibility, Africa, Mekong

issue images-86_2_manwithfishThis article traces the evolution of China’s policies aimed at promoting corporate social responsibility and sustainable investments, while assessing the extent to which its regulatory regime has succeeded in influencing the investment strategies of Chinese national companies across the developing world, specifically in Africa and the Mekong region. In an attempt to improve its international reputation, the Chinese government has stepped up its initiatives in recent years to oversee the practices of Chinese companies abroad and reorient the country’s policies towards greater corporate responsibility. But while promising, these efforts have been largely impeded by weak policy implementation. As evinced from the African mining sector and the Mekong’s hydropower industry, the diversity of corporate actors and their relative autonomy in making investment decisions, combined with lax governance in host countries and a long-standing concern with national development, have worked to hinder the effective regulation of Chinese overseas investments. Yet, that China, as a new country of origin of ODI, and Chinese firms are now making commitments to CSR and sustainability remains significant, indicating an important development in the country’s “Going Global” strategy. Abstract in Chinese – 摘要

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Asian Investment in the Rural Industries of Papua New Guinea: What’s New and What’s Not?

Colin Filer, Australian National University, Crawford School of Public Policy

Keywords: Papua New Guinea, Asian investment, capitalism, forestry, agriculture

issue images-86_2_workersuppliesOne part of the Australian colonial legacy in PNG is the Australian government’s attempt to forge partnerships with different groups of foreign companies in different economic sectors in order to lay the economic foundations for rural development in the newly independent nation. American and Australian capital was invited to develop the mining industry, European capital to develop the oil palm industry, and Japanese capital to develop the forest industry. Nowadays, the Australian government seems to have forgotten its late colonial enthusiasm for this form of state capitalism, and its aid to PNG is largely framed by the neo-liberal policy prescriptions which the World Bank was able to impose on the PNG government through a sequence of structural adjustment programs beginning in 1990. However, members of PNG’s national political elite have persistently sought refuge from this economic orthodoxy through their engagement with Asian governments and companies. In this paper I examine the way in which changing political and economic conditions have affected the actual pattern of Asian investment in PNG’s forestry and agriculture sectors, and the way in which different stakeholders have responded to this changing pattern of investment. Despite the prevalence of a policy narrative which holds Asian investors responsible for the corruption of PNG’s political institutions when mineral resource booms liberate national politicians from the constraints of Western economic orthodoxy, I show that Asian investment in these two sectors has taken several different forms, and there is no simple sense in which PNG’s national economy and political system are subject to a concerted takeover by Asian business interests. Abstract in Chinese – 摘要

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Beijing’s Orphans? New Chinese Investors in Papua New Guineaissue images-86_2_newcondo

Graeme Smith, The University of Sydney, China Studies Centre

Keywords: State-owned enterprises, investment, China, Papua New Guinea, stigmatization, localization

This paper will explore the perspectives and narratives developed by three different sets of Chinese investors in Papua New Guinea (PNG): investors in the retail, mining, and construction sectors. It is estimated that 90 per cent of new Chinese private investors in the PNG retail sector hail from Fuqing, a coastal community in Fujian province with a long history of transnational migration. Larger state-owned mining ventures and construction companies draw on a more disparate workforce, even though they are headquartered in Beijing. All three sets of investors face different degrees of stigmatization from their competitors, the media, and different Chinese and local actors. Based on interviews with Chinese investors in PNG and China, and drawing on Chinese scholarly studies, this paper will explore the interaction of these three groups of investors with Chinese state and non-state actors, and evaluate how this shapes the process of “localization.” The paper will examine how relations with state and non-state actors in PNG are evolving over time, as both groups find ways to “get things done” in a country where mainland Chinese investors have a short history of engagement. Abstract in Chinese – 摘要

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issue images-86_2_ramunicolsignChina’s Rise in Oceania: Issues and Perspectives

Terence Wesley-Smith, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Pacific Islands Studies

Keywords: China’s rise, Pacific Islands, developing world, China-Taiwan competition, Pacific Islands development

This paper identifies a broad context for assessing China’s increased interest in the Pacific Islands, and examines some of the major implications for regional security, regional politics, western influence, and self determination in the region. It argues that Beijing’s policy towards the Pacific is not driven by strategic competition with the United States, as some have maintained. Nor is it reducible to a specific set of interests centered on natural resources and, especially, competition with Taiwan. Although these factors are important, China’s activities in the region are best understood as part of a much larger outreach to the developing world that is likely to endure and intensify. The paper suggests that China’s rise is generally welcomed by island leaders, and makes the case that it offers island states economic and political opportunities not available under established structures of power and influence. Abstract in Chinese – 摘要

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Books Reviewed in this issue

Asia General

THE NEW ASIAN CITY: Three-Dimensional Fictions of Space and Urban Form. By Jini Kim Watson. Minneapolis; London: University of Minnesota Press, 2011. xi, 311 pp. (B&W photos.) US$25.00, paper. ISBN 978-0-8166- 7573-9. Reviewed by Daniel P.S. Goh

ASEAN AND THE INSTITUTIONALIZATION OF EAST ASIA. Routledge Security in Asia Pacific Series, 17. Edited by Ralf Emmers. London; New York: Routledge, 2011. xiii, 230 pp. (Illus.) US$140.00, cloth. ISBN 978- 0-415-61434-4. Reviewed by Timo Kivimäki

ASIAN RIVALRIES: Conflict, Escalation, and Limitations on Two-level Games. Edited by Sumit Ganguly and William R. Thompson. Stanford: Stanford Security Series, an imprint of Stanford University Press, 2011. vii, 259 pp. (Tables, figures.) US$24.95, paper. ISBN 978-0-8047-7596-0. Reviewed by David Scott

CHINA OR JAPAN: Which Will Lead Asia? By Claude Meyer; Translated by Adrian Shaw. New York: Columbia University Press, 2011. xxi, 195 pp. US$35.00, cloth. ISBN 978-0-231-70286-7. Reviewed by Joseph Caron

THE INTERNATIONAL AMBITIONS OF MAO AND NEHRU: National Efficacy Beliefs and the Making of Foreign Policy. By Andrew Bingham Kennedy. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012. ix, 261 pp. (Figures, maps.) US$99.00, cloth. ISBN 978-0-521-19351-1. Reviewed by Robert S. Anderson

THE OTHER COLD WAR. Columbia Studies in International and Global History. By Heonik Kwon. New York: Columbia University Press, 2010. xi, 211 pp. US$50.00, cloth. ISBN 978-0-231-15304-1. Reviewed by Jeffrey James Byrne

FIVE POWER DEFENCE ARRANGEMENTS AT FORTY. Edited by Ian Storey, Ralf Emmers, Daljit Singh. Singapore: S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies; Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2011. xxi, 129 pp. (Tables.) US$32.90, cloth. ISBN 978-981-4345-44-6. Reviewed by James Cotton

MANAGING CULTURAL LANDSCAPES. Edited by Ken Taylor and Jane L. Lennon. London and New York: Routledge, 2012. xvii, 379 pp. (Figures.) US$46.95, paper. ISBN 978-0-415-67225-2. Reviewed by Marie-Alice L’Heureux

China and Inner Asia

WHO’S AFRAID OF CHINA?: The Challenge of Chinese Soft Power. Asian Arguments. By Michael Barr. London and New York: Zed Books, 2011. vi, 154 pp. US$29.95, paper. ISBN 978-1-84813-590-1. Reviewed by Xiangfeng Yang

BALLOT BOX CHINA: Grassroots Democracy in the Final Major One-Party State. By Kerry Brown. London & New York: Zed Books, 2011. viii, 184 pp. (Map.) US$29.95, paper. ISBN 978-184813-820-9. Reviewed by Andrew Brennan

SMOKELESS SUGAR: The Death of a Provincial Bureaucrat and the Construction of China’s National Economy. Contemporary Chinese Studies Series. By Emily M. Hill. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2012, c2010. x, 318 pp. (Tables, figures.) C$32.95, paper. ISBN 978-0-7748-1653-3. Reviewed by Elizabeth J. Remick

KEEPING THE NATION’S HOUSE: Domestic Management and the Making of Modern China. By Helen M. Schneider. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2011. xii, 321 pp. (Figures, maps.) C$34.95, paper. ISBN 978-0-7748-1998-5. Reviewed by Harriet Evans

CONFUCIANISM AND DEMOCRATIZATION IN EAST ASIA. By Doh Chull Shin. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012. x, 366 pp. (Tables, figures.) US$28.99, paper. ISBN 978-1-107-63178-6. Reviewed by Taku Tamaki

SALT AND LIGHT: Lives of Faith that Shaped Modern China. Studies in Chinese Christianity. Edited by Carol Lee Hamrin, with Stacey Bieler. Eugene, OR: Pickwick Publications, c2009. xi, 240 pp.(Illus., ports.) US$22.40, paper. ISBN 978-1-55635-984-2. Reviewed by Ruth Hayhoe

SALT AND LIGHT 2: More Lives of Faith That Shaped Modern China. Studies in Chinese Christianity. Edited by Carol Lee Hamrin with Stacey Bieler. Eugene, OR: Pickwick Publications, c2010. xii, 239 pp. (Illus., map, ports.) US$22.40, paper. ISBN 978-1-60608-955-2. Reviewed by Ruth Hayhoe

SALT AND LIGHT 3: More Lives of Faith that Shaped Modern China. Studies in Chinese Christianity. Edited by Carol Lee Hamrin with Stacey Bieler. Eugene, OR: Pickwick Publications, c2011. xv, 261pp. (Illus., map, ports.) US$22.40, paper. ISBN 978-1-61097-158-4. Reviewed by Ruth Hayhoe

CHINESE MIGRANTS IN RUSSIA, CENTRAL ASIA AND EASTERN EUROPE. Routledge Contemporary Russia and Eastern Europe Series, 28. Edited by Felix B. Chang and Sunnie T. Rucker-Chang. London and New York: Routledge, 2012. xi, 232 pp. (Tables, figures.) US$140.00, cloth. ISBN 978-0-415-57874-5. Reviewed by Martina Bofulin

ADMINISTERING THE COLONIZER: Manchuria’s Russians under Chinese Rule, 1918-29. Contemporary Chinese Studies. By Blaine R. Chiasson. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2011, c2010. x. 285 pp. (Tables, maps, B&W photos, illus.) C$34.95, paper. ISBN 978-0-7748-1657-1. Reviewed by Bruce A. Elleman

Northeast Asia

HOME AND FAMILY IN JAPAN: Continuity and Transformation. Edited by Richard Ronald and Allison Alexy. London and New York: Routledge, 2011. xvii, 278 pp. (Tables, figures.) US$44.95, paper. ISBN 978-0-415-68804-8. Reviewed by Aya Ezawa

EDUCATION POLICY AND EQUAL OPPORTUNITY IN JAPAN. Asia Pacific Studies, v. 4. By Akito Okada. New York; Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2012. xvi, 197 pp. (Tables, figures) US$75.00, cloth. ISBN 978-0-85745-267-2. Reviewed by Steve R. Entrich

BORDERLINE JAPAN: Foreigners and Frontier Controls in the Postwar Era. By Tessa Morris-Suzuki. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010. xi, 272 pp. (Figures, maps, illus.) US$96.95, cloth. ISBN 978-0- 521-86460-2. Reviewed by Chris Burgess

THE QUEST FOR STATEHOOD: Korean Immigrant Nationalism and U.S. Sovereignty, 1905-1945. By Richard S. Kim. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2011. xii, 223 pp. (Figures.) US$21.95, paper. ISBN 978-0- 19-537000-3. Reviewed by Sean C. Kim

BEYOND NORTH KOREA: Future Challenges to South Korea’s Security. Edited by Byung Kwan Kim, Gi-Wook Shin and David Straub. Stanford, CA: The Walter H. Shorenstein Asia-Pacific Research Center, 2011. xiii, 281 pp. (Tables, figures). US$28.95, paper. ISBN 978-1-931368-19-3. Reviewed by Rudiger Frank

South Asia

AN INDIAN POLITICAL LIFE: Charan Singh and Congress Politics, 1937-1961. The Politics of Northern India, 1937 to 1987; v.1. By Paul R. Brass. New Delhi and Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 2011. xxx, 575 pp. (Tables, figures, maps.) US$49.95, cloth. ISBN 978-81-321-0686-9. Reviewed by Ronojoy Sen

SEX TRAFFICKING IN SOUTH ASIA: Telling Maya’s Story. Routledge Research on Gender in Asia Series; 3. By Mary Crawford. London and New York: Routledge, 2011. ix, 194 pp. (Figures.) US$42.95, paper. ISBN 978-0- 415-50007-4. Reviewed by Ruchira Gupta

ARTICLES OF FAITH: Religion, Secularism and the Indian Supreme Court. Law in India Series. By Ronojoy Sen. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2012. xli, 237 pp. Rs350.00, paper. ISBN 0-19-808535-4. Reviewed by Arvind Sharma

ECONOMY, CULTURE AND HUMAN RIGHTS: Turbulence in Punjab, India and Beyond. By Pritam Singh. Gurgaon: Three Essays Collective, 2010. xix, 249 pp. US$25.00, paper. ISBN 978-81-88789-69-6. Reviewed by Ashutosh Kumar

IN THE SHADOW OF SHARĪ‘AH: Islam, Islamic Law, and Democracy in Pakistan. By Mathew J. Nelson. New York: Columbia University Press, 2011. xxxii, 337pp. (Tables, figures, maps.) US$86.50, cloth. ISBN 978-0- 231-70072-6. Reviewed by Ayaz Qureshi

Southeast Asia

THE INSTITUTIONAL IMPERATIVE: The Politics of Equitable Development in Southeast Asia. Studies of the Walter H. Shorenstein Asia-Pacific Research Center. By Erik Martinez Kuhonta. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2011. xxii, 342 pp. (Figures, maps.) US$50.00, cloth. ISBN 978-0-8047-7083-5. Reviewed by Philip Hirsch

HOW ASIA CAN SHAPE THE WORLD: From the Era of Plenty to the Era of Scarcities. By Jørgen Ørstrom Møller. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2011. xiv, 540 pp. (Tables.) US$49.90, paper. ISBN 978-981- 4311-33-5. Reviewed by James Manicom

CHINESE HOUSES OF SOUTHEAST ASIA: The Eclectic Architecture of Sojourners and Settlers. By Ronald G. Knapp; photographs by A. Chester Ong; foreword by Wang Gungwu. Clarendon, VT: Tuttle, 2010. 288 pp. (Maps, colored photos.) US$49.95, cloth. ISBN 978-08048-3956-3. Reviewed by Abidin Kusno

HERITAGE TOURISM IN SOUTHEAST ASIA. Edited by Michael Hitchcock, Victor T. King and Michael J.G. Parnwell. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2010. xiv, 322 pp. (Tables, figures.) US$28.00, paper. ISBN 978-0-8248-3505-7. Reviewed by Dallen J. Timothy

GLIMPSES OF FREEDOM: Independent Cinema in Southeast Asia. Studies on Southeast Asia, no. 55. May Adadol Ingawanij and Benjamin McKay, editors. Ithaca: Southeast Asia Program, Cornell University, 2012. viii, 239 pp. (Illus.) US$23.95, paper. ISBN 978-0-8772-7755-2. Reviewed by David C. L. Lim

HISTORICAL DICTIONARY OF THE INDOCHINA WAR (1945-1954): An International and Interdisciplinary Approach. By Christopher E. Goscha. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2012. 564 pp. (Figures, maps.) US$175.00, cloth. ISBN 978-0-8248-36047. Reviewed by David Chandler

WOMEN’S MOVEMENTS AND THE FILIPINA, 1986-2008. By Mina Roces. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, c2012. x, 277 pp. US$55.00, cloth. ISBN 978-0-8248-3499-9. Reviewed by Leonora C. Angeles

INDONESIA: Sustaining Growth During Global Volatility. Editor, Thomas Rumbaugh. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund, 2012, xv, 125 pp. (Tables, figures) US$25.00, paper. ISBN 978-1-6-1635-202-8. Reviewed by David Dapice

THE END OF INNOCENCE: Indonesian Islam and the Temptations of Radicalism. By Andrée Feillard and Rémy Madinier; translated by Wong Wee. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2011. 336 pp. US$28.00, paper. ISBN 978-0-8248-35231. Reviewed by Robin Bush

MADURESE SEAFARERS : Prahus, Timber and Illegality on the Margins of the Indonesian State. Southeast Asia Publications Series. By Kurt Stenross. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2011. xxvi, 315 pp. (Figures, maps, B&W photos.) US$32.00, paper. ISBN 78-0-8248-35552. Reviewed by Glenn Smith

MIXED MEDICINES: Health and Culture in French Colonial Cambodia. By Sokhieng Au. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 2011. viii, 263 pp. (Figures.) US$35.00, cloth. ISBN 978-0-226-03163-7. Reviewed by Trude Jacobsen

BURMA OR MYANMAR?: The Struggle for National Identity. Editor, Lowell Dittmer. Singapore; Hackensack, NJ: World Scientific, 2010, xiv, 380 pp. (Tables, figures.) US$98.00, cloth. ISBN 978-981-4313-64-3. Reviewed by Maitrii Aung-Thwin

Australasia and the Pacific Islands

ON THE EDGE OF THE GLOBAL: Modern Anxieties in a Pacific Island Nation. Contemporary Issues in Asia and the Pacific. By Niko Besnier. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2011. xxiv, 297 pp. (Tables, maps, graphs, B&W photos.) US$70.00, cloth, ISBN 978-0-8047-7405-5; US$22.95, paper, ISBN 978-0-8047-7406-2, E-Book, ISBN 978-0-8047-7764-3. Reviewed by Sina Emde

CHANGING CONTEXTS, SHIFTING MEANINGS: Transformations of Cultural Traditions in Oceania. Edited by Elfriede Hermann. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press in association with the Honolulu Academy of Arts, 2011. xiii, 365 p. (Maps, B&W photos.) US$58.00, cloth. ISBN 978-0-8248- 3366-4. Reviewed by Sébastien Galliot

BLIGH: William Bligh in the South Seas. By Anne Salmond. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011. 528 pp., [16] pp. of plates. (Illus., maps.) US$39.95, cloth. ISBN 978-0-52-027056-5. Reviewed by Bernd Lambert

Documentary Film Review

INTO THE CURRENT = YAYZAN LAN: Burma’s Political Prisoners. [Film] By Jeanne Hallacy and the Democratic Voice of Burma; directed by Jeanne Marie Hallacy; editors, Ken Schneider and Ellen Bruno. Burma: Democratic Voice of Burma; Harriman, NY: distributed by Media Library, 2012. 1 videodisc (76 mins.) Universities, US$295.00; Public Libraries/Schools K-12, US$85.00; Home use, US$30.00. URL: Reviewed by Jane M. Ferguson



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