By Gi-Wook Shin, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA
Keywords: Historical Disputes, Collective Memory, East Asian Reconciliation, U.S Role
Unhealed wounds from past wrongs, committed during colonialism and war, have created regional animosity and stunted reconciliation in Northeast Asia. Claiming that continued disputes over historical injustice are not solely an intra-Asian issue, this article explores how the US can facilitate historical reconciliation in the region. It is necessary to recognize that the US played a significant role in dealing with historical issues in the aftermath of World War II. Aside from failing to fully address Japanese war crimes in the Tokyo Tribunal, the US was also pivotal in setting the terms of the San Francisco Peace Treaty, a legal instrument that has been the historical precedent for expunging any sense of Japanese guilt and responsibility. Likewise, the US has yet to formally accept its own actions which could be perceived as “crimes against humanity”: the US atomic and carpet-bombing of Japanese cities. This article advocates a self-critical, self-reflective approach that would involve US acknowledgement of its own responsibility in handling or mishandling of history issues in Northeast Asia. More specifically, the article also evaluates recent proposals for a presidential visit to Hiroshima or Nagasaki as a means of recognizing the human suffering caused by the atomic bombing, and for a new interpretation of the San Francisco Peace Treaty to better enable victims of Japanese war crimes to air grievances. This article supports both proposals but also argues that they must be implemented with caution and within a larger regional historical framework rather than as an attempt to bolster solely US-Japanese relations.
Chinese / French
Workers or Residents? Diverging Patterns of Immigrant Incorporation in Korea and Japan
Keywords: Immigration, Incorporation, Diversity, Civil Society, Korea, Japan
Although Korea and Japan have had to confront rapidly declining working-age population projections, both countries kept their borders closed to unskilled workers from the mid-1980s to the early 2000s, and met labour demands through de facto guest worker programs and preferential policies for co-ethnic immigrants. However, by the mid-2000s, government officials could no longer turn a blind eye to the swelling ranks of immigrants within their borders and announced two contrasting proposals for immigrant incorporation: centralized rights-based legislation that targets specific immigrant groups in Korea and decentralized guidelines that prioritize community-based partnerships in Japan. Instead of resulting from deliberate decision making by either state to manage the permanent settlement of immigrants, I argue that these divergent approaches reflect grassroots movements that drew on existing strategies previously applied to incorporate historically marginalized groups in each society prior to the establishment of official incorporation programs. Migrant workers in Korea made significant inroads in gaining rights largely because of the strong tradition of labour and civil society activism in Korea’s democratization movement. In Japan, grassroots movements led by generations of zainichi Koreans from the 1960s set the foundation for decentralized, community-based strategies for incorporating new immigrants from the late 1980s. Comparing two seemingly similar countries in East Asia, this article identifies patterns of interaction between new immigration and existing practices that have shaped relationships between dominant and minority communities and between state and non-state actors.
Chinese / French
By Renato Cruz De Castro, De La Salle University, Manila, Philippines
Keywords: Philippine foreign policy, Philippine-U.S. relations, overseas Filipino workers, foreign policy of weak powers, development diplomacy, Philippine-China relations
How do resource-starved weak powers adjust to a changing regional system? Looking at the Philippine case, this article examines the direction of the country’s foreign policy under the Arroyo administration. Observably, this foreign policy is directed to the generation of external resources that could address the country’s main security challenge: domestic insurgencies. To pursue this internal agenda, the Philippines engages both the United States and China in a delicate balancing act. The government has also jump-started its program of development diplomacy, with directives for its embassies and consulates abroad to promote the country’s export trade and to protect the rights and welfare of 8.5 million overseas Filipino workers (OFWs). It also utilizes multilateral organizations to advance its national development objectives. However, the country’s inherent weakness has constrained its ability to exploit optimally the opportunities created by its fluid external environment. In conclusion, the article contends that unless it consolidates its political base and enhances its economic competitiveness, the Philippines will remain a quintessential weak power in the world of the strong in East Asia.
Chinese / French
Understanding Fluctuations in Sino-Japanese Relations: To Politicize or De-Politicize the China Issue in the Japanese Diet
By Linus Hagström and Björn Jerdén,Swedish Institute of International Affairs, Stockholm, Sweden
From the late 1990s to the late 2000s, scholarly literature and media analysis shifted from representing the Sino-Japanese relationship as generally “good,” to portraying it as generally “bad,” and then back to describing it as generally “good” again. This article aims to make sense of what could thus be construed as fluctuations in Sino-Japanese relations and Japan’s China policy, through employing discourse analysis as foreign policy theory. The aim is operationalized by analyzing Japanese China discourse as it has played out in the Diet. The article demonstrates that there is a fault line between a “radical representation,” epitomizing further politicization of a prevalent Japanese sense of insecurity about China, and a “moderate representation,” reflecting de-politicization of the same phenomenon. Furthermore, it shows that in the period examined (a) China has come to be discussed more frequently, and (b) a greater variety of aspects of the relationship have reached the political agenda. Together, these two changes have been conducive in altering the relative position of the two representations. In 2008 the moderate representation was still dominant, but less so than in 1999. The main argument of this article is thus that recent fluctuations in Japan’s China policy-and by implication Sino-Japanese relations-can be understood in terms of an increasingly open Japanese China discourse.
Chinese / French
Books Reviewed In This Issue
ASIA’S NEW MULTILATERALISM: Cooperation, Competition, and the Search for Community. Edited by Michael J. Green and Bates Gill.
Reviewed by Narayanan Ganesan
PREVENTING CORRUPTION IN ASIA: Institutional Design and Policy Capacity. Edited by Ting Gong and Stephen K. Ma. Reviewed by Howard W. Dick
PRESCHOOL IN THREE CULTURES REVISITED: China, Japan, and the United States. By Joseph Jay Tobin, Yeh Hsueh and Mayumi Karasawa.
Reviewed by Merry White
HORROR TO THE EXTREME: Changing Boundaries in Asian Cinema. Edited by Jinhee Choi and Mitsuyo Wada-Marciano. Reviewed by Greta Niu
CONTESTED VIEWS OF A COMMON PAST: Revisions of History in Contemporary East Asia. Edited by Steffi Richter.
Reviewed by Bryce Wakefield
China and Inner Asia
CHINA’S REFORMS AT 30: Challenges and Prospects. Edited by Dali L. Yang and Litao Zhao. Reviewed by Prem Shankar Jha
SOCIALIST CHINA, CAPITALIST CHINA: Social Tension and Political Adaptation under Economic Globalization. Edited by Guoguang Wu and Helen Lansdowne. Reviewed by C. Cindy Fan
INEQUALITY AND PUBLIC POLICY IN CHINA. Edited by Björn A. Gustafsson, Li Shi, Terry Sicular. Reviewed by Xiaogang Wu
CREATING WEALTH AND POVERTY IN POSTSOCIALIST CHINA. Edited by Deborah S. Davis, Wang Feng. Reviewed by Xiaogang Wu
FROM IRON FIST TO INVISIBLE HAND: The Uneven Path of Telecommunications Reform in China. By Irene S. Wu. Reviewed by Milton Mueller
CHINA’S RISE IN THE WORLD ICT INDUSTRY: Industrial Strategies and the Catch-up Development Model. By Lutao Ning. Reviewed by Shahid Yusuf
GATED COMMUNITIES IN CHINA: Class, Privilege and the Moral Politics of the Good Life. By Choon-Piew Pow. Reviewed by Delia Davin
DIASPORIC HISTORIES: Cultural Archives of Chinese Transnationalism. Edited by Andrea Riemenschnitter and Deborah L. Madsen.
Reviewed by Philip Holden
FRACTURED REBELLION: The Beijing Red Guard Movement. By Andrew G. Walder. Reviewed by Guobin Yang
THE GENERALISSIMO: Chiang Kai-shek and the Struggle for Modern China. By Jay Taylor. Reviewed by Shao-Kang Chu
TWO SUNS IN THE HEAVENS: The Sino-Soviet Struggle for Supremacy, 1962-1967. By Sergey Radchenko. Reviewed by Elizabeth Wishnick
CHINA’S LAST EMPIRE: The Great Qing. By William T. Rowe.
Reviewed by Matthew Mosca
WOMEN’S MOVEMENTS IN TWENTIETH-CENTURY TAIWAN. By Doris T. Chang.
Reviewed by Emma J. Teng
GAY AND LESBIAN SUBCULTURE IN URBAN CHINA. By Loretta Wing Wah Ho. Reviewed by Travis S.K. Kong
CHINA FOREVER: The Shaw Brothers and Diasporic Cinema. Edited by Poshek Fu. Reviewed by Lily Wong
JAPAN IN THE WORLD: Shidehara Kijuro, Pacifism, and the Abolition of War, Volume 1. By Klaus Schlichtmann; translated by William Carter.
Reviewed by Tosh Minohara
JAPAN IN THE WORLD: Shidehara Kijuro, Pacifism, and the Abolition of War, Volume 2. By Klaus Schlichtmann; translated by William Carter.
Reviewed by Tosh Minohara
JAPAN’S PEACE-BUILDING DIPLOMACY IN ASIA: Seeking a More Active Political Role. By Peng Er Lam. Reviewed by David Martin Jones
THE PUBLIC SECTOR IN JAPAN: Past Developments and Future Prospects. By Toshihiro Ihori and Takero Doi. Reviewed by Charles J. McMillan
THE JAPANESE CONSUMER: An Alternative Economic History of Modern Japan. By Penelope Francks. Reviewed by Jeffrey Alexander
POLITICS AND PITFALLS OF JAPAN ETHNOGRAPHY: Reflexivity, Responsibility, and Anthropological Ethics. Edited by Jennifer E. Robertson.
Reviewed by Patricia G. Steinhoff
THE SEARCH FOR RECONCILIATION: Sino-Japanese and German-Polish Relations since World War II. By Yinan He. Reviewed by Yoshiko Nozaki
THE GROWTH IDEA: Purpose and Prosperity in Postwar Japan. By Scott O’Bryan.. Reviewed by Lonny E. Carlile
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY AND THE NEW GLOBAL JAPANESE ECONOMY. By Ruth Taplin. Reviewed by Robert Kneller
NORTHERN TERRITORIES, ASIA-PACIFIC REGIONAL CONFLICTS, AND THE ALAND EXPERIENCE: Untying the Kurillian Knot. Edited by Kimie Hara and Geoffrey Jukes. Reviewed by David Wolff
CULTURAL STUDIES AND CULTURAL INDUSTRIES IN NORTHEAST ASIA: What a Difference a Region Makes. Edited by Chris Berry, Nicola Liscutin and Jonathan Mackintosh. Reviewed by John A. Lent
YOUNG WOMEN IN JAPAN: Transitions to Adulthood. By Kaori H. Okano. Reviewed by Dawn Grimes-MacLellan
SOCIALIST REVOLUTIONS IN ASIA: The Social History of Mongolia in the 20th Century. By Irina Y. Morozova. Reviewed by Joakim Enwall
DEMOCRACY AND SOCIAL CHANGE: A History of South Korean Student Movements, 1980-2000. By Mi Park. Reviewed by Paul Y. Chang
DIASPORA WITHOUT HOMELAND: Being Korean in Japan. Edited by Sonia Ryang and John Lie. Reviewed by Kristin Surak
GENDER AND LABOUR IN KOREA AND JAPAN: Sexing Class. Edited by Ruth Barraclough, Elyssa Faison. Reviewed by Jesook Song
SITINGS: Critical Approaches to Korean Geography. Edited by Timothy R. Tangherlini and Sallie Yea. Reviewed by Hong Kal
JAPANESE ASSIMILATION POLICIES IN COLONIAL KOREA, 1910-1945. By Mark E. Caprio. Reviewed by Todd A. Henry
THE RED ROOM: Stories of Trauma in Contemporary Korea. By Pak Wôn-sô; O Chông-hûi and Im Ch‘ôr-u; Translated by Bruce and Ju-Chan Fulton; with a foreword by Bruce Cumings. Reviewed by Christopher Hanscom
THE PROLETARIAN GAMBLE: Korean Workers in Interwar Japan. By Ken C. Kawashima Reviewed by Jae-won Sun
THE DYNAMICS OF CHANGE IN NORTH KOREA: An Institutionalist Perspective. Edited by Philip H. Park. Reviewed by Jae-Cheon Lim
NOTHING TO ENVY: Ordinary Lives in North Korea. By Barbara Demick. Reviewed by Erich Weingartner
ORGANIZING AT THE MARGINS: The Symbolic Politics of Labor in South Korea and the United States. By Jennifer Jihye Chun. Reviewed by Joonmo Cho
THE CULTURE OF COPYING IN JAPAN: Critical and Historical Perspectives. Edited by Rupert Cox. Reviewed by Brenda G. Jordan
POP GOES KOREA: Behind the Revolution in Movies, Music, and Internet Culture. By Mark James Russell. Reviewed by Eun-Young Jung
SOUTH ASIA: Rising to the Challenge of Globalization. By Pradumna B. Rana and John Malcolm Dowling. Reviewed by Mitu Sengupta
GLOBALISATION AND THE MIDDLE CLASSES IN INDIA: The Social and Cultural Impact of Neoliberal Reforms. By Ruchira Ganguly-Scrase and Timothy J. Scrase. Reviewed by Henrike Donnerr
ACCELERATING GROWTH AND JOB CREATION IN SOUTH ASIA. Edited by Ejaz Ghani and Sadiq Ahmed. Reviewed by Matthew McCartney
KINGS OF THE FOREST: The Cultural Resilience of Himalayan Hunter-Gatherers. By Jana Fortier. Reviewed by Walter Huber
THE VITAL DROP: Communication for Polio Eradication in India. By Gitanjali Chaturvedi. Reviewed by Svea Closser
America in Vietnam: The War that Couldn’t Be Won. By Herbert Y. Schandler.
Reviewed by Gary R. Hess
The Art of Not Being Governed: An Anarchist History of Upland Southeast Asia. By James C. Scott. Reviewed by Carlo Bonura
Spirits of the Place: Buddhism and Lao Religious Culture. By John Clifford Holt. Reviewed by Patrice Ladwig
Across the Causeway: A Multi-dimensional Study of Malaysia-Singapore Relations. Edited by Takashi Shiraishi. Reviewed by Hussin Mutalib
Singapore: The Unexpected Nation. By Edwin Lee; introduction by Wang Gungwu. Reviewed by Kenneth Paul Tan
The Binding Tie: Chinese Intergenerational Relations in Modern Singapore. By Kristina Goransson. Reviewed by Jason Lim
State of Authority: The State in Society in Indonesia. Edited by Gerry Van Klinken and Joshua Barker. Reviewed by Nadirsyah Hosen
The Indonesia Reader: History, Culture, Politics. Edited by Tineke Hellwig and Eric Tagliacozzo. Reviewed by Timothy P. Barnard
Silenced Voices: Uncovering a Family’s Colonial History in Indonesia. By Inez Hollander. Reviewed by Suzanne Moon
Friends and Exiles: A Memoir of the Nutmeg Isles and the Indonesian Nationalist Movement. By Des Alwi; edited by Barbara S. Harvey.
Reviewed by Michelle Ann Miller
Communist Indochina. By R.B. Smith; Edited by Beryl Williams.
Reviewed by David G. Marr
Australasia and the Pacific Region
The Native Title Market. By David Ritter.
Reviewed by Stephen Grant Baines
Glamour in the Pacific: Cultural Internationalism and Race Politics in the Women’s Pan-Pacific. By Fiona Paisley. Reviewed by Helen Bethea Gardner
Natives and Exotics: World War II and Environment in the Southern Pacific. By Judith A. Bennett. Reviewed by Paul Shankman
In the Wake of the Beagle: Science in the Southern Oceans from the Age of Darwin. Edited by Iain McCalman and Nigel Erskine.
Reviewed by Alexander Mawyer
Fear of Security: Australia’s Invasion Anxiety. By Anthony Burke.
Reviewed by Scott Flower
Remaking the Tasman World. By Philippa Mein Smith, Peter Hempenstall and Shaun Goldfinch. Reviewed by Caroline Daley