Recent Issue – Vol 83, No 2 – June 2010

The Myth of Confucian Capitalism in South Korea: Overworked Elderly and Underworked Youth.

By Ji-Whan Yun

South Korea has long been regarded as a typical example of Confucian capitalism; the Confucian tradition of elderly support has not only been well-preserved but is also highly conducive to economic growth by creating strong collective bonds between Koreans. Nonetheless, the existence of an unusually large elderly workforce and a disproportionately small young workforce, together with poor working conditions for both old and young workers, demonstrates that the assumptions of Confucian capitalism do not hold true in Korea. This study explains why Korea has faced this issue without realizing its Confucian virtue through labour markets. Explanations have conventionally attributed this problem to external factors that are unrelated to Korea’s industrialization, such as increased life span, the changing quality of education, and a shifting value system. This study, however, adopts a new approach that emphasizes the responsibilities of Korea’s unique industrialization. It proposes that the main characteristics of Korea’s development pattern have distorted the supply and demand structure of the country’s labour markets, and have caused the current demographic imbalance between the overworked elderly and the underworked youth. Specifically, this study suggests that two characteristics of Korea’s industrialization—crony capitalism and growth absolutism—have affected the behaviour of young and old workers, thereby prevented them from realizing the Confucian virtue of elderly support through labour markets. This study implies that the affinity between development and tradition is not automatically given in East Asia, but rather is dependent on how development is designed and implemented.   traduction française

Autonomy for Southern Thailand: Thinking the Unthinkable?

By Duncan McCargo

Nearly 4000 people have died since 2004 in a violent conflict affecting Thailand’s Malay-majority southern border provinces: Pattani, Yala, Narathiwat, and four districts of neighbouring Songkhla. Offering some form of autonomy or substantive decentralization to this troubled region might seem like an obvious response to the violence, but the topic has remained largely taboo until recently. Autonomy is seen by Bangkok in essentially pre-Cold War terms, as the thin end of the wedge, which could prefigure an unravelling of the unitary state crafted during the time of King Chulalongkorn. Nevertheless, in recent years a number of senior figures from different positions in Thai society have voiced support for alternative governance arrangements for the deep South. These have included Dr Prawase Wasi (one of the architects of the 1997 constitution), former prime minister Chavalit Yongchaiyudh, former interior minister Chalerm Yubamrung, and a number of academics. Their proposals range from full autonomy for the deep South to a national project of regionalisation, as well as the creation of a new ministry to oversee the area. Prime Minister Abhisit Vejjajiva has offered mixed messages on the subject, but has indicated sympathy for some form of decentralization. This article argues that despite the controversial nature of such proposals, there is a slowly emerging consensus around the need for a political solution to the conflict. In other words, Thailand is moving towards a post-Cold War understanding of autonomy as a means of preserving rather than undermining the nation state. traduction française

Regulating Pacific Seasonal Labour in Australia

By Therese MacDermott and Brian Opeskin

In 2008 the Australian Government announced a new labour mobility scheme for Pacific workers, with the objective of meeting seasonal demand for low skilled labour in the horticulture industry and promoting economic development in Pacific Island Countries. Modelled on New Zealand’s Recognised Seasonal Employer scheme, it is a significant departure from Australia’s long-standing preference for permanent migration that is non-discriminatory with respect to the country of origin. Any temporary migration programme that draws a workforce from developing countries has the potential to exploit vulnerable foreign workers, but if Australia’s pilot program is to be a success in the long term it is imperative that seasonal workers from the Pacific are not exposed to that danger. This article examines the many layers of regulation that have been introduced to protect Pacific workers from exploitation, including bilateral intergovernmental agreements, supervision by government departments, and use of external advisory bodies. In addition, Australia’s regulatory framework governing workplace relations imposes a range of worker protections through equality laws, occupational health and safety principles, dispute settlement procedures, and trade union involvement. To date, the Australian scheme has provided very limited opportunities for Pacific workers. This raises concerns about the long term viability of this highly regulated scheme, and the capacity to move beyond a pilot program to provide sustained opportunities for both Pacific workers and the horticulture industry. traduction française

Japan’s Ocean Policy: Still the Reactive State?

By James Manicom

In 2005-06 Japan began asserting the jurisdictional rights to its maritime domain with greater authority than ever before. Tokyo prepared to conduct exploratory drilling in the disputed East China Sea and passed new laws to permit the full realization of Japan’s maritime rights and responsibilities. This activist turn appears to be at odds with most explanations of Japanese strategic policy. Given its preference for strategic evolution, Japan’s sudden preoccupation with the security and administration of its extended maritime zones— the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) and its extended continental shelf—following years of neglect is striking. Moreover, this shift has not received a great deal of attention in the literature. This paper argues that Japan’s hesitant, ad hoc and incomplete response to its changing maritime environment can understood through Kent Calder’s “reactive state” paradigm. While academic discussion of Japanese foreign policy has moved beyond the “reactive state” debate, Japan’s approach to its ocean policy appears to fulfill both of Kent Calder’s reactive state criteria. This paper analyses Japan’s resistance to the expansion of state sovereignty seaward and explores how this policy inertia was exposed by China’s more active maritime policy. This more assertive Chinese posture triggered the proactive turn in Japan’s ocean policy, which may have negative consequences for regional security. traduction française

China, Professional Journalism, and Liberal

Internationalism in the Era of the First World War

By Timothy Weston

This article shows that Chinese sensitivity about the way the Western press covers China, a point of obvious relevance today, has a lengthy and rich history. The article focuses on the movement to professionalize Chinese journalism in the late 1910s and early 1920s and on ways in which that movement was bound up in a transnational conversation about journalism reform, as well as in educational institution-building efforts, that flowed from the United States to East Asia. Concentrating on linkages between China, the United States, and Japan, the article argues that the effort to transfer American journalistic norms to China was undercut both by the Western-dominated political and economic forces that shaped the flow of information in the world at the time, and by the failure of Western journalism to live up to its own standards insofar as its coverage of China was concerned. Given the rising nationalism in China at that time, such problems proved very consequential. These conclusions are based on an analysis in the last section of the article of Chinese participation in the Press Congress of the World meeting convened in Honolulu, Hawai’i in 1921. The Chinese who attended that meeting were among the most Westernized and self-consciously professional journalists in China and as such were in a unique position to critique Western journalism practice in China on its own terms.

Falun Gong, Ten Years On – Review Article

By Stephen Noakes

Over a decade after it ran afoul of the Communist Party leadership, touching off a campaign of repression that led to its virtual eradication in China, the Falun Gong spiritual movement has spread across several continents and morphed into a transnational political advocacy group seeking justice and redress for the alleged persecution of its Chinese followers. Exploring a diverse selection of notable books on the subject, this review article enumerates prominent perspectives on Falun Gong’s political significance and suggests its continuing relevance for understanding the durability of authoritarianism in China. traduction française

Books Reviewed In This Issue

Asia General

OUTSOURCING AND HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: An International Survey. Edited by Ruth Taplin. Reviewed by Chris Rowley

THE SCRAMBLE FOR ASIA: U.S. Military Power in the Aftermath of the Pacific War. By Marc Gallicchio. Reviewed by Michael A. Barnhart

A GRAND DESIGN FOR PEACE AND RECONCILIATION: Achieving Kyosei in East Asia. Edited by Yoichiro Murakami, Thomas J. Schoenbaum.
Reviewed by Robert E. Bedeski

STATUS AND STRATIFICATION: Cultural Forms in East and Southeast Asia. Edited by Mutsuhiko Shima. Reviewed by Eyal Ben-Ari

CHINA’S RISE AND THE TWO KOREAS: Politics, Economy, Security. By Scott Snyder. Reviewed by B.C. Koh

GLOBALIZATION, THE CITY AND CIVIL SOCIETY IN PACIFIC ASIA. Edited by Mike Douglass, K.C. Ho and Giok Ling Ooi. Reviewed by Abidin Kusno

UNDERSTANDING EAST ASIA’S ECONOMIC “MIRACLES”. Key Issues in Asian Studies. By Zhiqun Zhu. Reviewed by Thomas B. Gold

 

China and Inner Asia

THE CHINESE PARTY-STATE IN THE 21ST CENTURY: Adaptation and the Reinvention of Legitimacy. Edited by Andre Laliberte and Marc Lanteigne. Reviewed by Joo-Youn Jung

WEALTH INTO POWER: The Communist Party’s Embrace of China’s Private Sector. By Bruce J. Dickson. Reviewed by Tony Saich

FORTIFYING CHINA: The Struggle to Build a Modern Defense Economy. By Tai Ming Cheung. Reviewed by Richard P. Suttmeier

THE PAN-PEARL RIVER DELTA: An Emerging Regional Economy in a Globalizing China. Edited by Y.M. Yeung and Shen Jianfa.
Reviewed by Graham E. Johnson

BOUNDARIES AND CATEGORIES: Rising Inequality in Post-Socialist Urban China. By Wang Feng. Reviewed by Katrin Fiedler

INEQUALITY AND GROWTH IN MODERN CHINA. Edited by Guanghua Wan; foreword by Anthony Shorrocks. Reviewed by Linda Yueh

CREATING THE “NEW MAN”: From Enlightenment Ideals to Socialist Realities. Perspectives on the Global Past. By Yinghong Cheng.
Reviewed by Mobo C. F. Gao

WU HAN, HISTORIAN: Son of China’s Times. By Mary G. Mazur. Reviewed by John Israel

MOSCOW AND THE EMERGENCE OF COMMUNIST POWER IN CHINA, 1925 – 30: The Nanchang Uprising and the Birth of the Red Army. By Bruce A. Elleman. Reviewed by Anna Belogurova

RETHINKING CHINESE POPULAR CULTURE: Cannibalizations of the Canon. Edited by Carlos Rojas and Eileen Cheng-yin Chow.
Reviewed by Alexander C. Y. Huang

HERSELF AN AUTHOR: Gender, Agency, and Writing in Late Imperial China. By Grace S. Fong. Reviewed by Maram Epstein

WOMEN PLAYING MEN: Yue Opera and Social Change in Twentieth-Century Shanghai. By Jin Jiang. Reviewed by Catherine Swatek

TAIWAN’S RELATIONS WITH MAINLAND CHINA: A Tail Wagging Two Dogs. By Su Chi. Reviewed by Scott Simon

NEW MASTERS, NEW SERVANTS: Migration, Development, and Women Workers in China. By Yan Hairong. Reviewed by Ingrid Nielsen

THE DRAGON’S HIDDEN WINGS: How China Rises with Its Soft Power. Challenges Facing Chinese Political Development.  By Sheng Ding.  Reviewed by Mingjiang Li

 

Northeast Asia

JAPAN’S MOTORCYCLE WARS: An Industry History. By Jeffrey W. Alexander. Reviewed by Tetsuji Okazaki

INTRODUCTION TO JAPANESE POLITICS. 5th ed. By Louis D. Hayes. Reviewed by Theodore J. Gilman

POVERTY AND SOCIAL WELFARE IN JAPAN. Japanese Society Series. Edited by Masami Iwata and Akihiko Nishizawa. Reviewed by Akihiro Ogawa

THE TOKYO WAR CRIMES TRIAL: The Pursuit of Justice in the Wake of World War II. By Yuma Totani. Reviewed Greg P. Guelcher

THE HISTORY OF MODERN JAPANESE EDUCATION: Constructing the National School System, 1872-1890. By Benjamin Duke.
Reviewed by Roger Goodman

CIVILIZATION AND ENGLIGHTENMENT: The Early Thought of Fukuzawa Yukichi. By Albert M. Craig. Reviewed by David L. Howell

MEMORY MAPS: The State and Manchuria in Postwar Japan. The World of East Asia. By Mariko Asano Tamanoi. Reviewed by Sandra Wilson

NIPPON MODERN: Japanese Cinema of the 1920s and 1930s. By Mitsuyo Wada-Marciano. Reviewed by Daisuke Miyao

TO LIVE TO WORK: Factory Women in Colonial Korea, 1910-1945. By Janice C.H. Kim. Reviewed by Michael Shin

CHOOSE AND FOCUS: Japanese Business Strategies for the 21st Century. By Ulrike Schaede. Reviewed by Ilan Vertinsky

JAPAN’S WHALING: The Politics of Culture in Historical Perspective. By Hiroyuki Watanabe; translated by Hugh Clarke. Reviewed by Arne Kalland

 

South Asia

ICTS AND INDIAN SOCIAL CHANGE: Diffusion, Poverty, and Governance. Edited by Ashwanti Saith, M. Vijayabaskar and V. Gayathri.
Reviewed by Carol Upadhya

SOUTH ASIAN CULTURES OF THE BOMB: Atomic Publics and the State in India and Pakistan. Edited by Itty Abraham. Reviewed by Robert S. Anderson

 

Southeast Asia

DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES IN ASEAN COUNTRIES. By Tulus Tambunan. Reviewed by Rajah Rasiah

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS IN SOUTHEAST ASIA: The Struggle for Autonomy. Rev. 2nd ed. By Donald E. Weatherbee. Reviewed by Sorpong Peou

POLITICAL ISLAM IN SOUTHEAST ASIA. By Gordon P. Means. Reviewed by Eric Tagliacozzo

LEAVES OF THE SAME TREE: Trade and Ethnicity in the Straits of Melaka. By Leonard Y. Andaya. Reviewed by Ota Atsushi

HERO AND DEITY: Tran Hung Dao and the Resurgence of Popular Religion in Vietnam. By Pham Phuong Quynh. Reviewed by Kirsten W. Endres

A MAN LIKE HIM: Portrait of the Burmese Journalist, Journal Kyaw U Chit Maung. By Journal Kyaw Ma Ma Lay; translated by Ma Thanegi. Reviewed by Maitrii Aung-Thwin

DEMOCRATIZATION IN POST-SUHARTO INDONESIA. Edited by Marco Bünte and Andreas Ufen. Reviewed by Jim Schiller

THE ANXIETIES OF MOBILITY: Migration and Tourism in the Indonesian Borderlands. By Johan A. Lindquist. Reviewed by Kathleen M. Adams

JAVANESE PERFORMANCES ON AN INDONESIAN STAGE: Contesting Culture, Embracing Change. By Barbara Hatley. Reviewed by Michael Bodden

DEPENDENT COMMUNITIES: Aid and Politics in Cambodia and East Timor. By Caroline Hughes. Reviewed by D. Gordon Longmuir

ISLAM AND NATION: Separatist Rebellion in Aceh, Indonesia. By Edward Aspinall. Reviewed by Shane Joshua Barter

 

Australasia and the Pacific Region

AUSTRALIAN FOREIGN POLICY IN THE AGE OF TERROR. Edited by Carl Ungerer. Reviewed by Scott Flower

STORMY WEATHER: The Challenge of Climate Change and Displacement. By David Corlett. Reviewed by Ilan Kelman

ABORIGINES AND ACTIVISM: Race, Aborigines & the Coming of the Sixties to Australia. By Jennifer Clark. Reviewed by Laurent Dousset

THE COLLECTORS OF LOST SOULS: Turning Kuru Scientists into Whitemen. By Warwick Anderson. Reviewed by Robert J. Foster

NATIVE MEN REMADE: Gender and Nation in Contemporary Hawai’i. By Ty P. K’wika Tengan. Reviewed by Charles M. Langlas

HAWAIIN BLOOD: Colonialism and the Politics of Sovereignty and Indigeneity. By J. K’haulani Kauanui. Reviewed by Eugene Ogan

LA FRANCE DANS LE PACIFIQUE SUD: Les Enjeux de la Puissance. By Nathalie Mrgudovic; preface by Michel Rocard. Reviewed by Nic MacLellan

INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL ISSUES IN THE PACIFIC RIM: Global Imbalances, Financial Liberalization, and Exchange Rate Policy. Edited by Takatoshi Ito and Andrew K. Rose. Reviewed by Enzo Weber

FOREIGN BODIES: Oceania and the Science of Race 1750-1940. Edited by Bronwen Douglas and Chris Ballard. Reviewed by Serge Tcherkezoff

JEAN-MARIE TJIBAOU, KANAK WITNESS TO THE WORLD: An Intellectual Biography. By Eric Waddell. Reviewed by Nathalie Mrgudovic

STATE OF SUFFERING: Political Violence and Community Survival in Fiji. By Susanna Trnka. Reviewed by Sina Emde

THE OTHER SIDE: Ways of Being and Place in Vanuatu. By John Patrick Taylor. Reviewed by Darrell Tryon

MICHAEL ROCKEFELLER: New Guinea Photographs, 1961. By Kevin Bubriski; foreword by Robert Gardner, photographs by Michael Rockefeller Reviewed by Jennifer Wagelied

THE MANAMBU LANGUAGE OF EAST SEPIK, PAPUA NEW GUINEA. By Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald, with assistance of Jacklyn Yuamali Ala and Pauline Agnes Yuaneng Luma Laki. Reviewed by Hilário de Sousa

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